Paper Mache : A Journey of Art and Resilience

Welcome to Kashmir, where a timeless traditions still weave a tapestry of Art and Culture. This is the story of Paper Mache, an art form that has weathered the storms of history, adapting and evolving with each passing era. Join me as we explore the captivating journey through the heart of Kashmir’s heritage, delving into the mesmerizing world of Paper Mache—a true gem of this region’s cultural heritage.

Pashmina Origins

The Origins of Paper Mache in Kashmir

Paper Mache: A Gift from Shah-e-Hamadan

Paper Mache, with its roots dating back to the 14th century, arrived in the Kashmir valley through the visionary Sufi Muslim Mir Sayid Ali Hamadani. Known as “Shah-e-Hamadan”, he brought skilled craftsmen from Persia, sparking a creative fire that continues to burn brightly today. Moreover, The term “Paper Mache” itself, is borrowed from the French language for “chewed paper” aptly describes the meticulous process of shaping paper pulp into captivating forms.

The Complex Process of Making Paper Mache

Stages of Artistry: Sakhtsazi and Naqashi

Within the realm of Kashmiri Paper Mache, two pivotal elements shine: Sakhtsazi and Naqashi. Sakhtsazi lays the foundation of these exquisite creations, involving the formation of the paper mache figurines using paper pulp. Naqashi, on the other hand, represents the final flourish, where intricate painting and decoration breathe life into these unique pieces.

Sakhtsazi Phase:

In the initial Sakhtsazi phase, the paper pulp undergoes a meticulous process. First, it soaks in water for several days, achieving a consistent texture. Subsequently, it’s ground in a stone mortar, ensuring uniformity. The sun plays its part as the pulp basks in its warmth, drying to perfection before blending with atji, a special rice glue.

Using molds crafted from clay or wood, artisans deftly shape the paper and glue mixture around them. The delicate removal of the paper from the mold while it’s not entirely dry is a critical step. Once free, it undergoes shaping and lacquering to achieve a smooth exterior. To safeguard the finished product from paint cracks, a thin layer of butter paper wraps around it.


Naqashi Phase:

Moving into the Naqashi stage, a foundational paint coat sets the stage. It’s during this phase that the artist’s creativity takes center stage as they handcraft unique designs on the Paper Mache objects. This personal touch ensures that no two Kashmiri Paper Mache items are alike. Traditional artists often rely on colours derived from minerals, organics, or vegetables, infusing each piece with a distinctive aura.

The themes that grace Kashmiri paper mache products are as diverse as they are captivating. From intricate floral patterns to geometric box designs, jungle motifs, and iconic Kashmiri symbols like the five-pointed Chinar leaf and almonds, each item tells its own tale. These creations are a testament to the art’s individuality, with every piece embodying a unique story.

As this ancient art endures into the present day, it embraces innovation while remaining true to its origins introduced to Kashmir by Mir Syed Ali Hamdani. Each Kashmiri paper mache item is a testament to the artistry, tradition, and creativity that define this remarkable craft.

Paper Mache Creations

From Birds to Quranic Treasures

The diversity of Paper Mache products is as awe-inspiring as it is enchanting. Delicate birds and animals, ornate wall clocks, and photo frames breathe life into the valley’s flora and fauna. Common themes include intricate floral patterns, jungle motifs, and iconic Kashmiri symbols like the Chinar leaf and almond shapes. Some artisans even transport you back in time, recreating historical scenes from Mughal courts or adorning their masterpieces with Persian poetry.

For those seeking a spiritual connection, Paper Mache artisans craft rahles (small reading desks for reciting the Quran) and Quran boxes, beautifully inscribed with Quranic verses. These intricate designs serve as both spiritual artifacts and captivating works of art, adding a touch of mystique to any setting.

Paper Machie

The Struggle to Preserve The Art of Paper Mache

From Prosperity to Precariousness

However, the future of Paper Mache in Kashmir is uncertain. Once a thriving industry, it now teeters on the brink of extinction. A series of calamities, from unprecedented Floods to the abrogation of Article 370 and the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown, have left artisans struggling to make ends meet. Many have been forced to abandon their workshops and seek alternative employment.

The Road Ahead for Paper Mache

Seeking a Lifeline in the Digital World

The turbulence caused by the Kashmir insurgency in the 1990s further exacerbated the challenges, with reduced enrolment in art schools and dwindling job opportunities. Nevertheless, there’s a glimmer of hope in the form of e-commerce, offering these skilled craftsmen a lifeline to international markets.

Facing Modernization

A Battle to Preserve Authenticity

Yet, the most formidable challenge arises from modern technology and machine carving. Mass-produced, lower-quality alternatives have inundated the market, threatening the sector’s economic viability. Artisans are locked in an arduous battle to preserve their craft.

Safeguarding Kashmir’s Artistic Legacy

Preservation through Promotion

In the wake of the Kashmir floods, the World Bank extended a helping hand to the region. But more is needed. The Directorate of Handicrafts of Jammu and Kashmir holds a crucial responsibility to ensure the survival and resurgence of this dying craft. Research, support, and promotion are essential to preserve an art form that is not just culturally and artistically significant but also aesthetically captivating.

Pashmina Vase


As we stand at the precipice of losing a cultural treasure, it’s time for Kashmir’s Paper Mache to shine brightly once again. Let the world acknowledge its beauty, the artisans’ dedication, and the urgent need to safeguard this invaluable piece of Kashmiri heritage. Together, we can ensure that the echoes of this ancient craft resonate through the ages, a testament to human resilience and creativity.

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